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While many Iowans have undoubtedly seen the yellow-green, grapefruit-sized fruit at farmer's markets, supermarkets, garden centers, and other locations, few individuals know much about these rather unusual fruit. Questions abound. What are they? Where do they come from? Are they good for anything?
WATCH RELATED VIDEO: Starting Your Own Espalier orchardContent:
- Top ten easy to grow fruit trees and plants
- Fruit Tree Espalier Guide
- Growing healthy fruit trees
- Growing fruit trees
- Cooperative Extension Publications
- Espalier and Fan-trained fruit trees for sale
- Fruit Tree Spacing!
- Apple Tree Options for Small Spaces
Top ten easy to grow fruit trees and plants
Prepared by James R. For information about UMaine Extension programs and resources, visit extension. Find more of our publications and books at extension. Fruit trees can be an attractive and useful addition to the home landscape. This fact sheet will help you to establish new fruit trees that will provide you with beauty and fruit for years to come.
Fruit trees may be planted in early spring, as soon as the frost in the ground has thawed. If the soil is very waterlogged, it is best to wait until it drains.
Wait until the soil no longer comes up in sticky clumps that stick to the shovel. The climate of New England is too cold for fall planting of fruit trees. Fall-planted trees will not have any advantage in growth over trees planted the following spring. Fall-planted trees may also be damaged in the winter months by rodents, deer or severe low temperatures.Bare-root nursery stock is usually less expensive and will establish and grow well if planted in April or early May.
If you must hold the trees a short time before planting, store them in a cool, shady place where they will be out of the sun and wind. Pack the roots in moist sawdust or sphagnum moss to prevent them from drying out. Potted or ball-and-burlap trees are preferable for planting dates in late May or early June. Select a site with direct sunlight. Allow enough room between the planting site and buildings, trees, power lines or other obstructions for the tree to fill its space when fully grown.
Tree size varies with different species and the rootstock that the tree is on. The nursery where you bought the tree can advise you as to how much space the tree will need when fully grown. Fruit trees are tolerant of a fairly wide range of soil types, but the soil should be well-drained, with a minimum of 18 inches of soil above any ledge or hardpan.
Start by cutting through the sod in a circle that is about a foot wider than the diameter of the root ball. Roll the sod out of the hole and discard it or use it to cover a place where you want grass. Then dig a hole wide enough to allow the root system to fit without roots wrapping around the edge of the hole in a circle.
Dig the hole deep enough to allow the tree to be planted with the graft union two to three inches above the ground. This planting depth is critical for trees on dwarf or semi-dwarf rootstocks. If the tree is planted too deep and the graft union is below the soil line, the scion variety will form roots and the tree will become a standard-sized tree. What should you put in the planting hole?
Only roots, clean soil, and water! Never put any fertilizer in the planting hole. If the soil is poor, you can mix in peat moss or thoroughly conditioned compost before filling the hole.
Trim off any broken or damaged roots before planting.Place the tree in the hole, and after making sure that the depth is correct, fill the hole with clean topsoil. It is helpful at this stage to have someone hold the tree straight while the hole is being filled. Pack the soil in the hole by gently stamping it with your feet. All newly planted fruit trees will benefit from being staked. This will result in a straighter tree with more growth.
Staking is especially important for trees planted on a wind-blown site and for dwarf fruit trees. Consider a strong permanent stake for dwarf fruit trees. After the tree has started to grow in about two weeks you can apply a nitrogen fertilizer. Apply one ounce of actual nitrogen in a inch circle around the base of the tree, and make sure the tree is well-watered after fertilizing. All nitrogen fertilizer should be applied before mid-June.
Late application of nitrogen can lead to late-season growth, and the tree may not harden off in time to withstand winter. Watering the new tree is important to help get it started, especially in the first few weeks after planting. A good rule is to apply five gallons of water around the base of the tree every week of the growing season in which there is less than an inch of rainfall.
Apples and pears are usually trained as a central leader or cone-shaped trees. This will stimulate the buds just below the cut to grow.
The top bud will grow vertically and form the leader, or trunk of the tree. The next one or two buds can be rubbed off with the fingers to prevent them from competing with the leader.
The buds that grow out below the top two or three should be retained to form the scaffold branches. Remove branches that grow out below a height of 18 inches from the ground. Bend the branches that remain to an angle of 45 to 65 degrees from vertical using clothespins, toothpicks or small weights. This keeps these branches from growing so strongly that they compete with the leader, and it stimulates flower production.Stone fruit trees peaches, plums are usually trained as open-center vase-shaped trees.
Two or three side branches are selected, and the remainder of the tree is cut off just above the top branch. Contact your county Extension office for other bulletins on training and pruning fruit trees. Weeds compete with young trees for water and nutrients. A weed-free zone should be established at the base of the tree that extends out to form a circle with a diameter of two to three feet.
Mulch, herbicide or cultivation may be used to prevent weeds. Newly planted trees need to be protected against attack by leaf-feeding insects, such as Gypsy Moths and Japanese Beetles.
Inspect the trees on a regular basis to see if there is fresh damage, and contact your University of Maine Cooperative Extension County Office for help in identifying and controlling any pests you find. Apple trees can become infected with a fungus disease, scab, that damages both leaves and fruit.
Control of scab is very important when the trees come into bearing. However, in severe cases, young, non-bearing trees can become defoliated by scab. This can stunt the trees and delay fruiting. Protect the tree trunk against girdling by rodents. Spiral mouse guards, made of white plastic, are a popular and inexpensive option. The white color helps prevent winter injury to the trunk.
However, this type of mouse guard should be removed during the summer and re-fitted in the fall to prevent it from becoming a safe haven for trunk-boring insects, such as the round-headed apple borer. An alternative solution is to paint the trunk with white interior latex paint and wrap the trunk with an inch tall piece of galvanized hardware cloth.
Deer can cause major damage to young fruit trees by feeding on the developing shoots and leaves in summer, and by browsing the fruit buds in winter.While repellents, such as small bars of hand soap, or small cloth bags of human hair, can deter hungry deer, sturdy fencing is the only long-term solution to possible deer damage.
Information in this publication is provided purely for educational purposes. No responsibility is assumed for any problems associated with the use of products or services mentioned. No endorsement of products or companies is intended, nor is criticism of unnamed products or companies implied. CallThe following person has been designated to handle inquiries regarding non-discrimination policies: Sarah E. Calendar Give News Find us Contact. Cooperative Extension Publications.
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Fruit Tree Espalier Guide
Space to play or pause, M to mute, left and right arrows to seek, up and down arrows for volume. Espaliering is a space-saving technique where a plant is manipulated to grow on a flat plane, such as against a fence. While you can espalier any plant, it is particularly effective for training fruit trees such as apples, pears, quince and plums. By manipulating vertical stems to grow horizontally, the tree's energy is redirected into the buds along the entire branch resulting in more flowers and fruit. Late summer and early autumn is the perfect time to prune and shape espaliers. Fri pm, Rpt Sun pm.
Espalier trees is the term used for pleached fruit trees, designed so that sun flowers and is therefore a great choice for screening above a fence line.
Growing healthy fruit trees
Facts and Myths of Hedge Apples by Dr. Barbara Ogg, Extension Educator. This time of year, hedge apples - the fruit from the Osage-orange tree - are being sold at farmer's markets, garden centers, and other locations. Many people have heard that these fruits can be used as an insect repellent, but the truth is that many people don't know much else about this unusual tree and its fruit. The Tree and Its Fruit:.The Osage-orange is a small to medium-sized tree, having a short trunk and a rounded or irregular crown. The twigs are buff to orange-brown and are armed with one-half inch long spines. The stems exude a milky sap when cut. The Osage-orange is dioecious, meaning that male and female flowers are produced on separate trees. The small, green flowers appear in May or June.
Growing fruit trees
Apples are pollinated by insects, with bees and flies transferring pollen from flowers of one apple tree to those of another. But you don't need to plant a whole orchard to enjoy apples right off the tree. Two trees will reward any family with enough fruit to enjoy and share with friends. Apples require pollen from a different apple variety to grow fruit.
Espalier fruit trees are a great way to save space and have fresh home-grown fruit too!
Cooperative Extension Publications
If you cannot find an answer below to a question you may have then please email us at info irishseedsavers. On receiving bare-rooted trees, unpack and inspect the trees. Ensure their roots are not allowed to dry out and that they are stored in a cool environment — eg: in an open shed. Roots need both oxygen and water, that is why they need to be kept damp but not saturated at all times. If the site is not prepared then heel the trees into free-draining cultivated soil or compost outdoors, until the planting holes are ready.
Espalier and Fan-trained fruit trees for sale
Selecting appropriate fruit trees, however, can be confusing. Impulsive purchases can lead to disappointment, particularly in the foothills where not every variety grows well. The key to success when it comes to fruit and nut varieties is to buy local. Talk to knowledgeable employees at a local foothill nursery. Tell them about your property including elevation, sun, etc. Trees at your local nursery may be slightly more expensive, but they have been chosen specifically for the foothills.In narrowing down specific varieties, consider size and chill hours. Fruit trees commonly come in standard, semi-dwarf or dwarf sizes.
Standard and semi-dwarf trees are best pruned to a central leader, while dwarf trees do well when trained along a fence or trellis. Apples usually produce too.
Fruit Tree Spacing!
Become a better gardener! Discover our new Almanac Garden Planner features forWant to grow a fruit tree but short on garden space? This is a common technique for apple trees but works with pears, peaches, and other fruit.
Apple Tree Options for Small SpacesRELATED VIDEO: Protecting Fruit Trees For Wildlife
Free-standing, espalier, fan, cordon, stepover This article provides information on shaping fruit trees in some of the most popular formats, with step-by-step instructions and diagrams. There are several ways of training fruit trees. For all, the basic principle is to shape the tree to optimise the arrival of light on the leaves, and to place the fruit in a position where it can be harvested easily. Free-standing trees require more space. Espaliered trees , or fans or cordons are more compact, and they are ideal where space is restricted.
Track your order through my orders. You don't need an orchard to grow your own fruit at home. Apple trees and strawberries, rhubarb and figs will all thrive in a British garden. If space is limited, try growing your fruit in containers. You can even grow strawberries in hanging baskets! Find all you need to know about growing your own fruit at our dedicated fruit hub page.
List of cordon trained apple trees very small M List of cordon trained apple trees small M9. List of cordon trained apple trees medium M List of cordon trained pear trees medium Quince C.